Friday, March 19, 2010

“Kazhugumala" centre of Jaina learning for 300 years from the 8th century A.D

WE were completely unprepared for what awaited us as A. Gangadurai, the caretaker, opened the locks of the single gate near a barbed wire fence and led us down a flight of narrow steps hewn out of a hill at Kazhugumalai.
On the rock surface, frozen in time, was a superbly sculpted Jaina Tirthankara seated in the ardhapariyankasana pose on a lion pedestal, with a triple umbrella above his head. Around the enlightened one were celestial maidens, dancing inside coils of creepers or playing the flute or a percussion instrument. Their merry abandon signified the occasion of his attaining kevalagnana, or enlightenment. On either side was a chowrie (flywhisk)-bearer. Below them, two devotees stood with flowers in their hands.
In this bas-relief, Tirthankara Parsvanatha is shown with snake hoods over his head. The yaksha Dharnendra is seen protecting him, and Kamdan, who tried to kill him by throwing a huge piece of rock at him, is seen as surrendering. Yakshi Padmavathi is also depicted in the sculpture

The hilltop offers a breathtaking view of paddy fields interspersed with palmyra trees. There are ponds on either side of the hill. A church spire jabs the sky on one side and around the church is the small town.
Vedachalam explained: “Kazhugumalai was an active centre of Jaina learning for 300 years from the 8th century A.D. It was a place of worship, a monastery and a college. Jains from Tirucharanam and Kottaru [both in present-day Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu] came to Kazhugumalai to teach and learn. There were women teachers also here.”
The male teacher was called “kuravar” and the female teacher “kurathi”. The inscriptions here give the names of a number of kurathis.
“Monks were also called Battarar,” said T. Arun Raj, Deputy Superintending Archaeologist, Archaeological Survey of India (Chennai Circle). “Nuns called kurathis came to Kazhugumalai from different Jaina centres such as Tirunarungkondai, Tirucharanam, Tirukottaru and Tirumalai [near Vellore] in the Tamil country.”
Treasure trove
Kazhugumalai is a treasure trove of indescribably beautiful Jaina sculptures. An amazing sight confronted us as we clambered up the hill. On a long rock surface were three rows of bas-reliefs of Tirthankaras, all seated in pedestals made of two rows of lotus flowers. Blossomed lotuses formed the upper row while inverted lotuses formed the lower row.
In this bas-relief, celestial beings visit a Tirthankara attaining enlightenment
However, there was a revival of Jainism in the Tamil country after the 8th century A.D. From a non-theistic religion, where monks lived in natural caverns, it became a theistic religion, absorbing rituals on the way. Several structural Jaina temples came up during this time.
There were more than 100 Jaina sites in the Pandya country (comprising the present-day districts of Madurai, Virudhunagar, Sivaganga, Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi and Kanyakumari in southern Tamil Nadu).
The most notable among these were the sites at Madurai, Kazhugumalai, Kurandi (near Aruppukottai) and Nagercoil (Kottaru).
“It is not true that Jainism was rooted out of Tamil Nadu after the 7th century A.D. A good example of the revival of Jainism in the Tamil country after the 8th century is Kazhugumalai,” said Vedachalam.
Arun Raj said important Jaina sites in the southern districts were Tiruparankunram, Anai Malai, Azhagar Malai, Mankulam, Arittapatti, Kizhavalavu, Vikramangalam, Mettupatti, Muthupatti, Kongarpuliyankulam and Karuvalangudi. Jainism also flourished at Sitthannavasal in Pudukottai district. In northern Tamil Nadu, there were Jaina sites at Tirunarungkondai, Tirunatharkunru, Mel Kudalur, Mel Sithamur, Jambai, Tirumalai, Thondur, Paraiyan Pattu and Thalavanur.
Structural Jaina temples came up at Agazhur near Ginjee, Veedur near Villupuram, Peramallur and Mel Sithamur (both near Tindivanam), Tirunarungkondai near Ulundurpet, Melmalayanur, and Tiruparutikunram, 3 kilometres from Kancheepuram.
Of all these sites, the largest number of Jaina bas-reliefs is found at Kazhugumalai. “There are more Jaina sculptures here than even at Tirumalai. The sculptures here have richness and variety. They are not monotonous,” said Vedachalam.
On top of the Kazhugumalai hills is an Ayyanar temple, which is about a hundred years old. The temple obscures some of the bas–reliefs behind it. The sanctum sanctorum of the temple is inside a natural cavern. As the priest lit a lamp to show us the roof of the dark cavern, three bas-reliefs of Tirthankaras came into view near the Ayyanar image.
Two of them sat side by side and the third was a few feet away. They were seated in ardhapariyankasana, under a triple umbrella. It is difficult to say whether these Jaina carvings have been documented.
Remarkable Beauty
A bas-relief of remarkable beauty in Kazhugumalai depicts the legend of the yakshi Ambika. The sculpture shows a tall and elegant Ambika, with her two children and her husband, a simha (a lion) and a “kalpavriksha”. The husband seems to be in a state of sheer awe, for one of his hands is raised in a state of shock.
Legend has it that Ambika violated a religious canon by giving away food she had cooked for her pitrus (ancestors) on a day of remembrance. When her relatives who had come to take part in the ceremony had gone out, a Jaina monk came to her house seeking food.
The Yakshi Ambika with her children, the simha (lion) and kalpavriksha. Her husband is shown with a hand raised and his face has no detailing so as to depict his awe and the glare from her "golden appearance" falling on him
He pleaded helplessness and suggested that she go back to her husband. Scared of her husband’s wrath, Ambika, committed suicide. She reached heaven and became an attendant, that is, a yakshi, of Tirthankara Neminatha.
But Ambika was unable to forget her past and Indra granted her a boon that she could return to earth and live with her husband while at the same time being a yakshi. Back home, her husband demanded that she show him her “golden appearance” to prove she was a yakshi.
When Ambika revealed her true self, the husband was taken aback by the dazzling halo. That is why his hand, in the sculpture, is raised and the face, with the glare, perhaps, is not deliberately sculpted.
“There are sculptures of the yakshi Ambika at Sitharal [near Nagercoil], Anai Malai and Samana Malai [both near Madurai] and Tirumalai. But this one at Kazhugumalai is the masterpiece,” said Vedachalam.
Another masterpiece is the sculpture of Bahubali (Gomatesvara) standing in meditation in a forest, with creepers entwining his legs, and his sisters Brahmi and Sundari telling him to shed his ego. Bahubali was one of the two sons of the first Tirthankara, Adinatha. (Bahubali himself is not a Tirthankara.)
Bahubali, or Gomatesvara, stands in meditation in a forest, with creepers entwined around his legs. His sisters Brahmi and Sundari are seen as telling him to “shed his ego”
There are 102 inscriptions at Kazhugumalai said Arun Raj. Of them, 100 relate to Jainism and the remaining, Saivism. The Jaina inscriptions mainly talk about the Tirthankaras and the donors who paid for sculpting their bas-reliefs. The donors included local merchants, carpenters, teachers, students, and so on.
The bas-reliefs were made in memory of dead relatives, too. The vatteluttu inscriptions mention the name of the Pandya king Maran Sadayan, who donated 17 bas-reliefs. The inscriptions also talk about the Pandya kings Parantaka Nedunchezhiyan (A.D. 765 -A.D. 815), and Parantaka Veera Narayanan of the 9th century.
The inscriptions, according to Vedachalam, provide another interesting piece of information: to protect the hill and its sculptures, there were two groups of warriors called “Tirumalai Veerar” and “Parantaka Veerar”.  FPRIVATE
An illegal wall that has come up at Kazhugumalai obscures intricate bas-reliefs
Kazhugumalai had a chief Jaina monk called Gunasagara Battarar. The philosophy of Jainism was taught here. An inscription mentions this in Tamil: “Samana sidhandham uraikkum vairakkiar…”.



Sudeep Kumar said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Elangovan said...

your work on bring samanam histry to light is appreciatable.
good work
keep going
looking forward for more articles

ML said...

Click to see some pics of the Kazhugamala

Saras said...

Neminath or Balaji, it is d same Supreme Spiritual Energy Electricity...d energy or power behind a fan,or tubelight or TV is d same..only d form n its potency or voltage is different..
We need to go beyond d form ..
Yes ,the fan n tubelight was discovered first..d TV came much later..

Anonymous said...

Generally we must respect this type of request...
Neurologists of the Spain institute of cerebral studies say that one must
never fart in Ac car with the Glass on. The benzine present in the upholstery material reacts with the stomach fart gases to produce an olfactory irritant which can irreversibly affect your central nervous system . An app developer from Hyderabad joined hands with a start up created "RUNFARTS". Under test conditions and clinical trials observation is likely to launch in 2017.
Check it for your selves
You can't fart when you are sad.
Farts don't occur when you are shocked.
In a research paper Sarah Jones Skip an intern with the university of Texas studies revealed that Mosquitos don't attack people who eat Parmesan cheese and fart.
Horse can sense your while riding don't fart on the horse back.
In ancient Egypt Indian slaves hailing from Gujarat were punished by making them fart and sneeze simultaneously with forced open eyes sitting on the house, which resulted in cerebral hemorrhage , rectal prolapse and cardiac arrest.
Cadmium fart blockers were first used by romans princess during Rosalia's visit to Rome. People with facial partial paralysis twitch the face while releasing a long fart. Indian women freeze for a milli second while Farting and go expressionless. Point!
Reptiles can dissolve their fart gases and convert into a substance called Utica which can mislead the parasites
The uric acid and fart gases confuses the predators
Endo parasites can shrink during this process and they fail to multiply owing to the confusion caused by the dissolved blood gases and fart gases.
MRI with deep contrast revealed that the rhino of John Hopkins Lab was orally administered the roots of Ecclesiasticus alba i.dicus along with pepperi longum for treating flatulence and aphasia
In Romania a clinical research coordinator was poisoned when he accidentally sniffed a fart of a person who ate goat cheese, raw garlic with oats and honey.
The gas produced by garlic , raw coconut and dosa batter could burst the astronaut's intestine within seven minutes in stratosphere. This makes it easier to get the best way to study alimentary canal disorders.
Deep sea diver akshay Agarwal paul. says in wisteria north where the temperature drops below -37 degrees his trainees from India who ate mooli ka paratha (raddish flat bread with butter) and butter milk with cumin seeds and black salt fart often. "It was like the stink bomb from a pharmaceutical drug effluent mixed with poultry smell and garbage truck carrying fertilizer" recalls Mr.Agarwal.
Farting in spandex diving suit almost suffocated a girl student from MVSR engg college to death. She apparently ate panipuri the day before diving and forgot to shit the morning she drived into the sea. The culprit was black salt, mint and the arsenic present in the raw green chillies seed reacts to produce nitrogen gas under sub zero temp.
To be continued.....
Farting in denim causes bum pimples and acne. Troglecerhypoxdic oil and pool chlorine is used to treat the denim cloth. When moist fart gets in contact with the denim cloth skin irritant compound is released.
People who ate mushroom get headache after farting on new year day
Its a swedish myth, but respected. You can google it. No mushroom dish is served on cold winter nights in Sweden. Christmas and new year you can't have mushroom.
Headache is associated with severe nausea and acute constipation
Misty sweet smelling fart of air hostess flying in gulf is milder than the fart of a receptionist at any hotel in Europe.